Composite Models

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Problem 1

Consider a flat universe with several components $\rho=\sum_i \rho_i$, each with density $\rho_i$ and partial pressure $p_i$ being related by the linear state equation $p_i =w_i \rho_i$. Find the particle horizon at present time $t_0$.

Problem 2

Suppose we know the current material composition of the Universe $\Omega_{i0}$, $w_i$ and its expansion rate as function of redshift $H(z)$. Find the particle horizon $L_p (z)$ and the event horizon $L_p (z)$ (i.e the distances to the respective surfaces along the surface $t=const$) at the time that corresponds to current observations with redshift $z$.

Problem 3

When are $L_p$ and $L_e$ equal? It is interesting to know whether both horizons might have or not the same values, and if so, how often this could happen.

Problem 4

Find the particle and event horizons for any redshift $z$ in the standard cosmological model -- $\Lambda$CDM.

Problem 5

Express the particle $L_p (z)$ and event $L_e (z)$ horizons in $\Lambda$CDM through the hyper-geometric function.