# Generalized models of unification of dark matter and dark energy

(see N. Caplar, H. Stefancic, Generalized models of unification of dark matter and dark energy (arXiv: 1208.0449))

**Problem 1**

problem id: gmudedm_1

The equation of state of a barotropic cosmic fluid can in general be written as an implicitly defined relation between the fluid pressure $p$ and its energy density $\rho$, \[F(\rho,p)=0.\] Find the speed of sound in such fluid.

From $F(\rho,p)=0$ it follows that \[\frac{\partial F}{\partial\rho}d\rho + \frac{\partial F}{\partial p}dp=0\] which leads to \[c_s^2=\frac{dp}{d\rho}=-\frac{\frac{\partial F}{\partial\rho}}{\frac{\partial F}{\partial p}}.\]

**Problem 2**

problem id: gmudedm_2

For the barotropic fluid with a constant speed of sound $c_s^2=const$ find evolution of the parameter of EOS, density and pressure with the redshift.

Inserting $p=w\rho$ in \[\frac{\partial F}{\partial\rho}d\rho + \frac{\partial F}{\partial p}dp=0\] and using the definition of the speed of sound we obtain \[\frac{d\rho}{\rho}=\frac{dw}{c_s^2-w}.\] Combining this expression with the continuity equation for the fluid results in equation \[\frac{dw}{(c_s^2-w)(1+w)}=-3\frac{da}a=3\frac{dz}{1+z}.\] For $c_s^2=const$ parameter of EOS evolves as \[w=\frac{c_s^2\frac{1+w_0}{c_s^2-w_0}(1+z)^{3(1+c_s^2)}-1}{\frac{1+w_0}{c_s^2-w_0}(1+z)^{3(1+c_s^2)}+1}.\] From this relation it immediately follows that \[\rho=\rho_0\frac{c_s^2-w_0}{c_s^2-w}= \rho_0\frac{c_s^2-w_0}{1+c_s^2}\left[\frac{1+w_0}{c_s^2-w_0}(1+z)^{3(1+c_s^2)}+1\right]\] and \[p=c_s^2\rho-\rho_0(c_s^2-w_0)= \rho_0\frac{c_s^2-w_0}{1+c_s^2}\left[\frac{1+w_0}{c_s^2-w_0}(1+z)^{3(1+c_s^2)}-1\right].\]