Hybrid Expansion Law

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In problems #SSC_18 - #SSC_19_0 we follow the paper of Ozgur Akarsu, Suresh Kumar, R. Myrzakulov, M. Sami, and Lixin Xu4, Cosmology with hybrid expansion law: scalar field reconstruction of cosmic history and observational constraints (arXiv:1307.4911) to study expansion history of Universe, using the hybrid expansion law---a product of power-law and exponential type of functions \[a(t)=a_0\left(\frac{t}{t_0}\right)^\alpha\exp\left[\beta\left(\frac{t}{t_0}-1\right)\right],\] where $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are non-negative constants. Further $a_0$ and $t_0$ respectively denote the scale factor and age of the Universe today.

Problem 1

problem id: SSC_18

Calculate Hubble parameter, deceleration parameter and jerk parameter for hybrid expansion law.

Problem 2

problem id: SSC_18_2

For hybrid expansion law find $a, H, q$ and $j$ in the cases of very early Universe $(t\to0)$ and for the late times $(t\to\infty)$.

Problem 3

problem id: SSC_18_3

In general relativity, one can always introduce an effective source that gives rise to a given expansion law. Using the ansatz of hybrid expansion law obtain the EoS parameter of the effective fluid.

Problem 4

problem id: SSC_19

We can always construct a scalar field Lagrangian which can mimic a given cosmic history. Consequently, we can consider the quintessence realization of the hybrid expansion law. Find time dependence for the the quintessence field $\varphi(t)$ and potential $V(t)$, realizing the hybrid expansion law. Obtain the dependence $V(\varphi)$.

Problem 5

problem id: SSC_19_1

Quintessence paradigm relies on the potential energy of scalar fields to drive the late time acceleration of the Universe. On the other hand, it is also possible to relate the late time acceleration of the Universe with the kinetic term of the scalar field by relaxing its canonical kinetic term. In particular this idea can be realized with the help of so-called tachyon fields, for which \[\rho=\frac{V(\varphi)}{\sqrt{1-\dot\varphi^2}},\quad p=-V(\varphi)\sqrt{1-\dot\varphi^2}.\] Find time dependence of the tachyon field $\varphi(t)$ and potential $V(t)$, realizing the hybrid expansion law. Construct the potential $V(\varphi)$.

Problem 6

problem id: SSC_19_2

Calculate Hubble parameter and deceleration parameter for the case of phantom field in which the energy density and pressure are respectively given by \[\rho =-\frac{1}{2}\dot{\varphi}^2+V(\varphi),\quad p =-\frac{1}{2}\dot{\varphi}^2-V(\varphi).\]

Problem 7

problem id: SSC_19_0

Solve the problem #SSC_19 for the case of phantom field.

Problem 8

problem id: SSC_19_12

Find EoS parameter for the case of phantom field.